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What is the best app to earn money? 2018

Vigo Video app

My answer could be useful for those who are not getting even a single flame,so after 2 months of irritating usage,i somehow understand the trick to get only flames(even 1 flames also) & all these likes and share are only temptation (just like chilli in mustard oil) to increase flames not the reason of earning flames .
1.Vigo video is trying to get original users(In the form of giving #challenges) so that they get original data of users for themselves to earn money and give commision to us (which is 1 flame=0.0015 USD) so Try to record video from in-app camera(as per there rules) for #hashtags challenges for eg-: #fitnesschallenge #mymakeup #mybabu#dogfacechallenge,#poploface #countonme etc.
2.Try to make videos same like the trending or video which has got many flames so try those which are simple for you ,don't try some ruin videos to ruin your time.
3.You can use filters,effects while recording any #challenge videos these increase the chance of getting more flames,depends on your upload time.
4.Many people think uploading videos from album (mostly videos which are downloaded from another website) can be helpful to get more flames,but wait and think even if you get 1000 flames on that video,someday application will recognized by the help of algorithm that he or she is uploading from any other website(mostly like insta & musikali) by which app will think he is fake user and then you will stop getting flames or have the risk of ban.
5.Continuing the Point 4,(90% of users affected by this situation) Before recording any video for any challenge make sure you have deleted all those duplicate or any other website video(if uploaded) because challenges are the medium to get info of any user, thats why many old users are still getting flames because they don't do any challenges hence app bluffed by them . Sochallenges are most valuable part of this application as it helps the algorithm to detect whether the user videos are real or duplicate,this helps algorithm to decide easily whether to give flames or not. Don't worry your flames wouldn't be decrease if you delete any such videos before any detection by app.
6.If you dont want to do any cringe challenges and want to upload your own video then see which has more comment and also see the time of comments of any trending (especially any #hashtag challenge video which has got many unexpected flames) video this could help to get the ideo of right upload time to get more traffic.(Hope you understand what i want to say)
Thanks for reading this essay and sorry for any inconvenience while reading.
Hope you like and share which will give atleast 1 flame for this answer.

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How is life in Gurgaon? What do the people spend their time doing? What are the perks and problems? What are the highlights and low points?

Life in Gurgaon is a near-perfect example of how life shouldn't be. I work in the cyber city and my answer pertains to the area in and around the DLF Cyber city. As an urban and transportation planner, my answer will revolve around such and such aspects only. 

The Negatives:

The sun dawns in Gurgaon with sirens and noises from on-going construction nearly everywhere. One could see expensive and luxurious cars violating the traffic along the main thoroughfare. As if this was not enough, reckless and impatient auto-rickshaws, shuttles and two-wheelers maneuver around releasing obnoxious flames and bringing the traffic to a standstill. Amidst the perennial honking and dust, I make it through the reckless traffic every morning from Dwarka in Delhi to Gurgaon, a 15 km ride mostly on the highway but still takes about 1 and 1/2 to 2 hours to travel one-way. Scores and scores of workers make their way to the industrial hubs jaywalking through the traffic. The pedestrians are the most vulnerable due to the lack of side walks, pelican signals or grade-separated walkways. Whatever little space is left, is occupied by parked vehicles, taxis and hawkers. 

There's a ton of construction going on, drainage pipes being set up and access roads being drilled everywhere. There are  either no designated bus-stops or makeshift ones and hardly any signage for directions. You miss a signal, you end up spending another hour in the traffic. To go towards Delhi, a lot of people cross a very very busy junction under the flyover (shown below) for car-pooling, private buses and taxis. God forbid if there is a medical emergency, forget reaching a hospital on time. Even the cops will not be able to ensure a green corridor. All in all, commuting is a big pain in the a**. To put things in perspective, here's a picture: 

This, my friend, is a national highway. 

And in the evening, the situation worsens with the entry of trucks and other commercial vehicles.

To negate this effect of commuting, most of the working professionals tend to live in-and-around an area called U-block. Soaring real-estate prices in Gurgaon leave not many options. Living here is a punishment with lack of hygiene, irregular water supply and electricity and no air circulation. The whole of U-Block, with its narrow unpaved alleys, is packed with poorly ventilated high-rise one-room apartments. As the working population in Gurgaon swells, U-block and the nearby areas continue to deteriorate into a concrete urban slum. There is hardly any green or recreational parks. It is dotted by a few shady gyms and hideous malls, hawkers, snack-joints and piles and piles of garbage. Given the recent surge in the number of earthquakes and after-shocks, fire safety seems to be non-existent. There is an inside joke within my office where we determine our safety based on whether or not U-block falls. I seriously doubt if these buildings are earthquake resistant. More-so do they even have a foundation? Either way, you get killed either by commuting to Gurgaon or by living here. 

Here's a view of U-block from my office:

Street thugs, burglary and shootings are rampant around the outer areas but I haven't witnessed any around the Cyber city. The sheer number of pubs, dance bars and liquor stores in Gurgaon is testimony to many a drunken revelry and accidents. So safety definitely is an issue around here. 

The Positives:
As much as I'd like to dismiss living in Gurgaon, there are a few positives albeit in relative terms. I've had a hard time coming up with the positives, but anyway:

CYBER HUB - is like the lotus in a dirty pond. Swanky restaurants, bars and a host of culinary delights, impromptu gigs and product launches all at one place is the perfect antithesis to life in Gurgaon. Smarty dressed professionals hanging out after a day of (maybe, intense) work with their foreign counterparts presents a picture no less than any foreign destination. Although overpriced, I am guilty of spending half my salary here on international cuisines and ethnic foods. You are never short of options.

[All images of Cyber Hub sourced from the Google Images]

RAPID METRO: is a boon to the ones having to converse from one office to another within the Cyber city. Although the stations are named funnily (Micromax Avenue, IndusInd station, Vodaphone Belvedere towers, etc.) rapid metro provides the much needed respite to traffic, especially if you need to travel within the complex. 
It also provides a seamless interchange to the Yellow line of Delhi Metro. And, there is free wi-fi too. 

[Both images sourced from Google Images]

To put it bluntly, Gurgaon is a wannabe modern and smart city without the requisite infrastructure. There is a weird vibe to the place. 

Source by :-

Which are the best affordable housing projects in Gurgaon?

OSB Golf Heights is an exquisite residency in huda affordable housing in gurgaon located at a serene location sector 69. OSB Golf Heights Quality 2 BHK and 2 BHK+S flats for sale in delhi ncr in Gurgaon. These 2 bhk & 2bhk+s budget homes in gurgaon are designed thoughtfully to provide maximum comfort to its inhabitants.

Osb Golf Heights Affordable Housing is packed with an array of contemporary amenities to making residents living pure bliss. This project among Best huda affordable housing projects in gurgaon has amenities as clubhouse, child day care centre, smoothly operating lifts with power backup, 24*7 advanced security and much more..

OSB Golf Heights Housing Gurgaon has schools, colleges, hospitals within a radius of 1 to 2 kms making it one of the best affordable housing projects in Gurgaon. This Project of gurgaon housing scheme 2018 has easy connectivity to Delhi airport through Dwarka expressway along with NH-8. Upcoming ISBT is also easily accessible from OSB Golf Heights

Where can I buy an affordable house in Gurgaon?

Gurgaon Affordable
With the new budget of 2017 - 18, govt. has given infrastructure status to Affordable housing sector. With this move, large no. of builders and real estate companies are moving in this sector. As far as Gurgaon is concerned, areas near dwarka expressway are getting a lot of affordable housing projets in recent times.  Sec. 62,103,107,108,112,98 ,69etc. OSB has also launched a project in sec. 109.
So, I would like to suggest you 

Osb Golf Heights

OSB Golf Heights 
OSB Sector 69 is an upcoming affordable housing project, located in sector 69 Gurgaon. The project announced by one of the reputed builders Ocean Seven Buildtech. Moreover, the project offers 1 BHK, 2BHK apartments with modern architecture.

Actually, OSB Sector 69 affordable housing project spread in the sprawling 5 acres. Additionally, OSB affordable housing project includes the green area with beautiful gardens. And, this project will be a desirable place to live a happy life with peace and high living standards. Especially, the architecture gives you beautiful views of the nearby areas.

OSB affordable sector 69 Gurgaon will be under Haryana affordable housing policy 2013. In this project, the lucky draw will be the basis of allocation of the apartments. Also, the draw will be held by DTCP Haryana and draw date. Finally, DTCP Haryana will announce the draw results.

Without any doubt, OSB Affordable Housing Gurgaon located strategically in Sector 69. It has a convenient location with easy connectivity to Sohna Road and NH8 makes this project an elegant place to live in. Above all, the residents will face least traffic issues because of the wide road on both sides.

Surprisingly, this project is a few minutes away from Rajiv Chowk and metro station. Also, have connectivity with world-class hospitals like Medanta Medicity, etc.

Location Advantage – OSB Golf Heights Gurgaon
Close to Medanta The Medicity
Gems International School nearby
Only 10 minutes away from Ansal Plaza
Sector 110, 106 and 109 neighborhood Sectors
Close to Proposed metro station
90-meter Road aside
Amenities of Golf Heights 69 
CCTV Observation.
24 hours Power Supply
Children’s Playing Area and Creche
Car Parking
Fire Safety System
High-Speed Lifts
Jogging Track
Gated Complex

Specifications – OSB Golf Heights
Wooden Laminates
Wooden Fittings and Granite Slab
Marble Shelf in Kitchen with Sink
High-Quality Sanitary Fittings
Plastic Paint & Distemper Paint
Steel Grills in Balcony

Parmanu – The Story of Pokhran

John Abraham and Boman Irani try their best, but fail to keep us invested in this historical drama.
Inspired by true events – India’s first successful nuclear tests conducted at Pokhran in 1998 – ‘Parmanu’ has an interesting premise, but the story progresses at a sluggish pace.
Back in 1995, US intelligence agencies detected India’s preparations for nuclear tests as a result of which the mission had to be aborted. Ashwat Raina (John Abraham), an IIT-educated  IAS officer, is made to take the fall for the failure.
Three years later, under then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, there is renewed interest in nuclear weapons testing as a means of making a statement to the world by India – a budding superpower.
Himanshu Shukla (Boman Irani), a minister in the PMO, reaches out to Raina asking him for his expert opinion on what went wrong in 1995. Shukla entrusts Raina to helm a team to carry out a new series of nuclear tests at Pokhran – and make them a success this time round.
There is no issue with the plot per say, although the director fumbles with its execution. Starting from the scene where Raina makes his first pitch for the nuclear tests with ministers sitting around a conference table enjoying chai and samosas right to the shoddy climax that looks out of the 1980s – the end product leaves a lot to be desired for.
The motley crew that Raina stitches together make no impression at all. We hear of their expertise on various fields, but at no point do they exhibit their genius to show that Raina had a good reason to pick them up.
The acting, the direction, the screenplay – there is something inherently lacking in every department.
The only point of interest, to me at least, was to see how nuclear tests are actually conducted. The rest, alas, was a rather tedious watch.
Watch it if you must – it’s a not-so-boring lesson in history.

10 Shocking SEO Facts You Never Knew About

SEO still keeps a lot of secrets for a lot of beginners out there, but even advanced users need to be constantly up to date with what happens in the online marketing world.  We’ve put a together a list of ten SEO facts you’ve probably never heard of before; however, even if you have, this is a friendly reminder.  

There are a lot of SEO facts and stats out there, with more or less known matters. What we’ve tried to do is to put together a list of surprising SEO facts that make you look at the search engine market from a new perspective. This is not a collection of SEO statistics; this is a list of SEO facts that will help you improve your SEO and your overall online marketing strategy. 

10 Shocking SEO Facts You Never Knew About

That is why we have prepared for you a series of ten shocking facts that we believe you never knew about, until today.

1. Duplicate Content Won’t Get You Penalized

 Will you be penalized for duplicate content? No. Is duplicate content hurting your site? Well, it depends. Allow us to elaborate more on this matter. 

To start with, we will cite the Google Search Quality Evaluator Guidelines from March 2017 :

 In 2017, Google accounted for over 79% of all global desktop search traffic, followed by Bing at 7.27%, Baidu at 6.55% and Yahoo at 5.06%.

  1. Not All Search Engines Use Links as a Ranking Factor 
  2. Google+ Is the Highest Correlated Social Factor for Rankings
  3. Rich Snippets Have No Direct Impact on Your Rankings
  4. Only 2 of the Top 10 Most Popular Sites  Are Content Sites
  5. Object Detection in Images is a Strong Ranking Signal
  6. Google Has Search Evaluators to Determine the Quality of Results
  7. A Video on Your Homepage Will Double the Chances to Show up on Page 1 of Google
  8. Travel Time Is a Metric for Google’s Ranking
  9. Google Ranks Events Based upon Popularity

How You Know It Isn’t Love

Here are about a dozen ways to tell:


Don’t talk to me about peaks. Don’t talk to anybody about peaks — not your partner, not your BFF, and especially not yourself.
Everyone experiences the elation of emotional peaks with their partners, and everybody wants to call these feelings “love,” especially early on. But these are fools gold, and even if you think “this one’s different, man,” I’ll tell you again:love is never in the upside.
It’s in the valleys. And that’s where you know for sure.
What’s your gut reaction when things go south? What’s your lizard brain say when shit hits the fan? I’m not saying that you should listen to it — lizard brains are notoriously stupid, and often need to be shushed and guided by more mature and developed thinking — but I am saying you should notice.Because love is neither fight nor flight; love doubles-down, joins forces, makes it work. If your reaction is to throw punches or throw in the towel, it’s not love.


Look, just don’t talk about love in terms of feelings — and this definitely includes “infatuation” or “preoccupation” or “obsession” or “can’t live without” (see above.)
Talk about feelings all you want — they are incredibly wonderful parts of the human experience — and feel All Of The Feelings for your partner, because those are some of the juiciest. Just also understand that love is a choice, an active decision, and a series of investments and efforts and actions. Theproblem with defining love as “feelings” is twofold: 1.) it makes for immature relationships, and 2.) leaves us susceptible to one day “not feeling it” and folding.


Not just for a moment (because that happens to all of us) and also not as the result of depression (look into that to make sure), but rather a pervasivefeeling of not actually connecting.
This is different than feelings “fading,” as mentioned above. You can still care deeply for someone but feel lonely every time you’re together. If you don’t actually connect, it will never be the making of a rich relationship.
I dated one dude for a while, when we were young and dumb and didn’t know what we didn’t know, and we thought this was well enough how love was supposed to look. But I can pinpoint the exact moment I realized we should break up. We were at the mall, killing time on another empty afternoon, not even walking around or actually shopping but just standing there, leaning on a railing and looking down at a lower level. And all of a sudden I was overcome with this immense loneliness — not in the moment, but rather the sudden and undeniable realization that I was always lonely with him. We were never truly together; never really seeing each other eye to eye; instead just rushing around to distract ourselves from it. And once we stopped and stared at nothing long enough for me to see it, I couldn’t go back to unseeing.


Honestly, I either have no idea what “chemistry” means or I just bundle it into other things (like “intellectual companions,” and “friendship,” and “conversation,” see below.)
But I guess it’s worth including because so many people do: if you continually come back to “the way your partner looks on paper” to defend the relationship to yourself, it’s probably going south.


This, as I said, is probably just my “chemistry,” but either way it is, in my mind, a very important, stand-alone thing.
I dated a dude for five years who was plenty “smart” and successful in his own right, but he and I fundamentally operated in very different ways. I never felt as though I had an intellectual companion, and I spent years thinking, “well, it’s fine — we all make sacrifices in love. There is no perfect partner.”
But there’s a difference between rooting for different sports teams and being able to have the conversations you care most about. When I shared my most cherished thoughts or abstract questions — like “isn’t it interesting how people choose to build their lives?” — looking to volley answers or even (dream big!) build a full-blown discussion, he would absentmindedly quell it with, “that’s just the way things are — it doesn’t mean anything.” Full stop.


When it comes to a “life partner,” make sure they’re actually there for the “life stuff.”
Like if you share big news with your partner (you got promoted, won a deal, quit that job you hated, whatever) they shouldn’t sound as though you just said you grabbed milk on the way home.


Ditto for death.
They should hug you if you’re crying, offer to go to the services (and actually go, if you want them to and they can), and refrain from making jokes too soon or demanding brownie points if they order flowers. This is easy stuff, guys. Yet it’s amazing how many people eff this up.
After my brother died unexpectedly (and then a job offer fell through only after I’d quit my previous position), I came down with the worst cold (or flu) of my life — the kind where your nose simply won’t stop running and you can’t manage basic functions and you’re so physically fatigued you can’t even go to the grocery to get drugs for it. My boyfriend and I lived together at the time, but he was so oblivious that after a day and a half I dragged myself, zombie-like, to the drug store two blocks away and bought my own meds, and was so exhausted by the time I got back that I crashed on the couch for hours afterwards.
For anybody who’s sitting there thinking, “why didn’t you just ask him?” Iseriously encourage you to reevaluate your standards of basic human decency and awareness. Normally “asking” is correct. But damn, son.


With the biggest catalyst being “moving.”
When they move across the country (or the world) and you are in no way inclined to follow (except, perhaps, “for the adventure.”) Or, vice versa, when you feel compelled to move across the country but only half-care if they come.


If you think you love someone because they’re “beautiful” or “giving” or “make you feel good” or some other self-serving pleasure, then you should realize: that’s not real love.
That’s not to say you don’t (or can’t) really love them, but “the pleasure they give you” (or, in codependent cases, the pleasure you give them) can never be the foundation.


Just go re-read the first section, honestly.
Mature love is based on healthy non-attachment


I don’t understand how anybody could ever think it’s “romantic” for someone to declare, “I’m going to marry you” or “I’m going to have kids with you” shortly after meeting them.
Gross. Get out of here with that grabby shit.
One dude I dated said “I’m gonna make you my wife” within a couple months of knowing me, and my knee jerk reaction was: “wow — does he not realize I have a say in this?”
The most interesting part was: I had come home from our first date feeling the same way. But the fact that he said it so matter of factly, without me ever verbally weighing in on the matter, turned me off so much it couldn’t be salvaged. It wasn’t cute and it wasn’t romantic — even though our feelings had once aligned, because I realized that that fact didn’t actually matter to him.
It was presumptuous and off-putting and poor form. If you find this romantic, you really need to check your idea of personal agency and emotionalboundaries.
And that realization is, on the one hand, weird — because I make decisions like this all the time with my partners (love is, after all, choice and commitment) so I’m not sure where the line is in whether “deciding” is love or ownership. Maybe it has to do with actually knowing the other person (as discerned by them, not you.) Either way, all I know is that when it aligns in the right way, it feels really good. And when it doesn’t, and they claim more of you than you offered or chose, it’s heart-wrenching. And it’s only worse if youdid choose or offer, only differently or less, because they don’t care and your left standing there with your heart in your hand.


Fear and love can’t coexist. If your primary anxiety around the idea of breaking up is “fear of being alone,” it isn’t love.

Then what IS love?

Embracing each other as individual human beings with individual human being lives, who just happen to get along enough to bump down the road alongside one another.
Then, mutual investment and support in each other’s growth, especially when things get rough or scary. But always complementary, never to complete one another. And always with care and compassion.

Web Architecture 101

Web Architecture 101

The basic architecture concepts I wish I knew when I was getting started as a web developer

Modern web application architecture overview
The above diagram is a fairly good representation of our architecture at Storyblocks. If you’re not an experienced web developer, you’ll likely find it complicated. The walk through below should make it more approachable before we dive into the details of each component.
A user searches on Google for “Strong Beautiful Fog And Sunbeams In The Forest”. The first result happens to be from Storyblocks, our leading stock photo and vectors site. The user clicks the result which redirects their browser to the image details page. Underneath the hood the user’s browser sends a request to a DNS server to lookup how to contact Storyblocks, and then sends the request.
The request hits our load balancer, which randomly chooses one of the 10 or so web servers we have running the site at the time to process the request. The web server looks up some information about the image from our caching service and fetches the remaining data about it from the database. We notice that the color profile for the image has not been computed yet, so we send a “color profile” job to our job queue, which our job servers will process asynchronously, updating the database appropriately with the results.
Next, we attempt to find similar photos by sending a request to our full text search service using the title of the photo as input. The user happens to be a logged into Storyblocks as a member so we look up his account information from our account service. Finally, we fire off a page view event to our data firehose to be recorded on our cloud storage system and eventually loaded into our data warehouse, which analysts use to help answer questions about the business.
The server now renders the view as HTML and sends it back to the user’s browser, passing first through the load balancer. The page contains Javascript and CSS assets that we load into our cloud storage system, which is connected to our CDN, so the user’s browser contacts the CDN to retrieve the content. Lastly, the browser visibly renders the page for the user to see.
Next I’ll walk you through each component, providing a “101” introduction to each that should give you a good mental model for thinking through web architecture going forward. I’ll follow up with another series of articles providing specific implementation recommendations based on what I’ve learned in my time at Storyblocks.

1. DNS

DNS stands for “Domain Name Server” and it’s a backbone technology that makes the world wide web possible. At the most basic level DNS provides a key/value lookup from a domain name (e.g., to an IP address (e.g.,, which is required in order for your computer to route a request to the appropriate server. Analogizing to phone numbers, the difference between a domain name and IP address is the difference between “call John Doe” and “call 201-867–5309.” Just like you needed a phone book to look up John’s number in the old days, you need DNS to look up the IP address for a domain. So you can think of DNS as the phone book for the internet.
There’s a lot more detail we could go into here but we’ll skip over it because it’s not critical for our 101-level intro.

2. Load Balancer

Before diving into details on load balancing, we need to take a step back to discuss horizontal vs. vertical application scaling. What are they and what’s the difference? Very simply put in this StackOverflow posthorizontal scaling means that you scale by adding more machines into your pool of resources whereas “vertical” scaling means that you scale by adding more power (e.g., CPU, RAM) to an existing machine.
In web development, you (almost) always want to scale horizontally because, to keep it simple, stuff breaks. Servers crash randomly. Networks degrade. Entire data centers occasionally go offline. Having more than one server allows you to plan for outages so that your application continues running. In other words, your app is “fault tolerant.” Secondly, horizontal scaling allows you to minimally couple different parts of your application backend (web server, database, service X, etc.) by having each of them run on different servers. Lastly, you may reach a scale where it’s not possible to vertically scale any more. There is no computer in the world big enough to do all your app’s computations. Think Google’s search platform as a quintessential example though this applies to companies at much smaller scales. Storyblocks, for example, runs 150 to 400 AWS EC2 instances at any given point in time. It would be challenging to provide that entire compute power via vertical scaling.
Ok, back to load balancers. They’re the magic sauce that makes scaling horizontally possible. They route incoming requests to one of many application servers that are typically clones / mirror images of each other and send the response from the app server back to the client. Any one of them should process the request the same way so it’s just a matter of distributing the requests across the set of servers so none of them are overloaded.
That’s it. Conceptually load balancers are fairly straight forward. Under the hood there are certainly complications but no need to dive in for our 101 version.

3. Web Application Servers

At a high level web application servers are relatively simple to describe. They execute the core business logic that handles a user’s request and sends back HTML to the user’s browser. To do their job, they typically communicate with a variety of backend infrastructure such as databases, caching layers, job queues, search services, other microservices, data/logging queues, and more. As mentioned above, you typically have at least two and often times many more, plugged into a load balancer in order to process user requests.
You should know that app server implementations require choosing a specific language (Node.js, Ruby, PHP, Scala, Java, C# .NET, etc.) and a web MVC framework for that language (Express for Node.js, Ruby on Rails, Play for Scala, Laravel for PHP, etc.). However, diving into the details of these languages and frameworks is beyond the scope of this article.

4. Database Servers

Every modern web application leverages one or more databases to store information. Databases provide ways of defining your data structures, inserting new data, finding existing data, updating or deleting existing data, performing computations across the data, and more. In most cases the web app servers talk directly to one, as will the job servers. Additionally, each backend service may have it’s own database that’s isolated from the rest of the application.
While I’m avoiding a deep dive on particular technologies for each architecture component, I’d be doing you a disservice not to mention the next level of detail for databases: SQL and NoSQL.
SQL stands for “Structured Query Language” and was invented in the 1970s to provide a standard way of querying relational data sets that was accessible to a wide audience. SQL databases store data in tables that are linked together via common IDs, typically integers. Let’s walk through a simple example of storing historical address information for users. You might have two tables, users and user_addresses, linked together by the user’s id. See the image below for a simplistic version. The tables are linked because the user_id column in user_addresses is a “foreign key” to the id column in the users table.
If you don’t know much about SQL, I highly recommend walking through a tutorial like you can find on Khan Academy here. It’s ubiquitous in web development so you’ll at least want to know the basics in order to properly architect an application.
NoSQL, which stands for “Non-SQL”, is a newer set of database technologies that has emerged to handle the massive amounts of data that can be produced by large scale web applications (most variants of SQL don’t scale horizontally very well and can only scale vertically to a certain point). If you don’t know anything about NoSQL, I recommend starting with some high level introductions like these:
I would also keep in mind that, by and large, the industry is aligning on SQL as an interface even for NoSQL databases so you really should learn SQL if you don’t know it. There’s almost no way to avoid it these days.

5. Caching Service

A caching service provides a simple key/value data store that makes it possible to save and lookup information in close to O(1) time. Applications typically leverage caching services to save the results of expensive computations so that it’s possible to retrieve the results from the cache instead of recomputing them the next time they’re needed. An application might cache results from a database query, calls to external services, HTML for a given URL, and many more. Here are some examples from real world applications:
  • Google caches search results for common search queries like “dog” or “Taylor Swift” rather than re-computing them each time
  • Facebook caches much of the data you see when you log in, such as post data, friends, etc. Read a detailed article on Facebook’s caching tech here.
  • Storyblocks caches the HTML output from server-side React rendering, search results, typeahead results, and more.
The two most widespread caching server technologies are Redis and Memcache. I’ll go into more detail here in another post.

6. Job Queue & Servers

Most web applications need to do some work asynchronously behind the scenes that’s not directly associated with responding to a user’s request. For instance, Google needs to crawl and index the entire internet in order to return search results. It does not do this every time you search. Instead, it crawls the web asynchronously, updating the search indexes along the way.
While there are different architectures that enable asynchronous work to be done, the most ubiquitous is what I’ll call the “job queue” architecture. It consists of two components: a queue of “jobs” that need to be run and one or more job servers (often called “workers”) that run the jobs in the queue.
Job queues store a list of jobs that need to be run asynchronously. The simplest are first-in-first-out (FIFO) queues though most applications end up needing some sort of priority queuing system. Whenever the app needs a job to be run, either on some sort of regular schedule or as determined by user actions, it simply adds the appropriate job to the queue.
Storyblocks, for instance, leverages a job queue to power a lot of the behind-the-scenes work required to support our marketplaces. We run jobs to encode videos and photos, process CSVs for metadata tagging, aggregate user statistics, send password reset emails, and more. We started with a simple FIFO queue though we upgraded to a priority queue to ensure that time-sensitive operations like sending password reset emails were completed ASAP.
Job servers process jobs. They poll the job queue to determine if there’s work to do and if there is, they pop a job off the queue and execute it. The underlying languages and frameworks choices are as numerous as for web servers so I won’t dive into detail in this article.

7. Full-text Search Service

Many if not most web apps support some sort of search feature where a user provides a text input (often called a “query”) and the app returns the most “relevant” results. The technology powering this functionality is typically referred to as “full-text search”, which leverages an inverted index to quickly look up documents that contain the query keywords.
Example showing how three document titles are converted into an inverted index to facilitate fast lookup from a specific keyword to the documents with that keyword in the title. Note, common words such as “in”, “the”, “with”, etc. (called stop words), are typically not included in an inverted index.
While it’s possible to do full-text search directly from some databases (e.g., MySQL supports full-text search), it’s typical to run a separate “search service” that computes and stores the inverted index and provides a query interface. The most popular full-text search platform today is Elasticsearchthough there are other options such as Sphinx or Apache Solr.

8. Services

Once an app reaches a certain scale, there will likely be certain “services” that are carved out to run as separate applications. They’re not exposed to the external world but the app and other services interact with them. Storyblocks, for example, has several operational and planned services:
  • Account service stores user data across all our sites, which allows us to easily offer cross-sell opportunities and create a more unified user experience
  • Content service stores metadata for all of our video, audio, and image content. It also provides interfaces for downloading the content and viewing download history.
  • Payment service provides an interface for billing customer credit cards.
  • HTML → PDF service provides a simple interface that accepts HTML and returns a corresponding PDF document.

9. Data

Today, companies live and die based on how well they harness data. Almost every app these days, once it reaches a certain scale, leverages a data pipeline to ensure that data can be collected, stored, and analyzed. A typical pipeline has three main stages:
  1. The app sends data, typically events about user interactions, to the data “firehose” which provides a streaming interface to ingest and process the data. Often times the raw data is transformed or augmented and passed to another firehose. AWS Kinesis and Kafka are the two most common technologies for this purpose.
  2. The raw data as well as the final transformed/augmented data are saved to cloud storage. AWS Kinesis provides a setting called “firehose” that makes saving the raw data to it’s cloud storage (S3) extremely easy to configure.
  3. The transformed/augmented data is often loaded into a data warehouse for analysis. We use AWS Redshift, as does a large and growing portion of the startup world, though larger companies will often use Oracle or other proprietary warehouse technologies. If the data sets are large enough, a Hadoop-like NoSQL MapReduce technology may be required for analysis.
Another step that’s not pictured in the architecture diagram: loading data from the app and services’ operational databases into the data warehouse. For example at Storyblocks we load our VideoBlocks, AudioBlocks, Storyblocks, account service, and contributor portal databases into Redshift every night. This provides our analysts a holistic dataset by co-locating the core business data alongside our user interaction event data.

10. Cloud storage

“Cloud storage is a simple and scalable way to store, access, and share data over the Internet” according to AWS. You can use it to store and access more or less anything you’d store on a local file system with the benefits of being able to interact with it via a RESTful API over HTTP. Amazon’s S3 offering is by far the most popular cloud storage available today and the one we rely on extensively here at Storyblocks to store our video, photo, and audio assets, our CSS and Javascript, our user event data and much more.

11. CDN

CDN stands for “Content Delivery Network” and the technology provides a way of serving assets such as static HTML, CSS, Javascript, and images over the web much faster than serving them from a single origin server. It works by distributing the content across many “edge” servers around the world so that users end up downloading assets from the “edge” servers instead of the origin server. For instance in the image below, a user in Spain requests a web page from a site with origin servers in NYC, but the static assets for the page are loaded from a CDN “edge” server in England, preventing many slow cross-Atlantic HTTP requests.
Check out this article for a more thorough introduction. In general a web app should always use a CDN to serve CSS, Javascript, images, videos and any other assets. Some apps might also be able to leverage a CDN to serve static HTML pages.

Parting thoughts

And that’s a wrap on Web Architecture 101. I hope you found this useful. I’ll hopefully post a series of 201 articles that provide deep dives into some of these components over the course of the next year or two.